MESSAGE

NCATE 2010 Standard 4

 

The unit designs, implements, and evaluates curriculum and provides experiences for candidates to acquire and demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions necessary to help all students learn. Assessments indicate that candidates can demonstrate and apply proficiencies related to diversity. Experiences provided for candidates include working with diverse populations, including higher education and P-12 school faculty; candidates; and students in P-12 schools.

 

[In this section the unit must include (1) initial and advanced programs for teachers, (2) programs for other school professionals, and (3) off-campus, distance learning, and alternate route programs, noting

differences when they exist.]

 

4a. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of Curriculum and Experiences

 

4a.1. What proficiencies related to diversity are candidates expected to develop and demonstrate?

 

In compliance with federal law, including provisions of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, William Carey University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national or ethnic origin, age, or disability in admissions or in the administration of its education policies, programs, and activities. In compliance with Title IX of the Education Act, the university does not discriminate on the basis of gender in the administration of its policies, programs, and activities. The Vice President of Academic Affairs has been designated as the responsible employee to coordinate efforts to carry out responsibilities and direct the investigation of complaints relating to discrimination.

 

The School of Education is involved in recruitment in a number of ways during each trimester as the university seeks minority students. Faculty members participate in family days, preview days, visit schools and community colleges, and even travel to other countries in effort to recruit students. The admissions office informs the School of Education by email of students who have indicated an interest in education and these students are contacted first by the Chair of the Department of Curriculum and Instruction, then the Dean of the School of Education and often faculty as well. For special programs, the Chairs of Educational Leadership, Career and Technical Education, or Health, Physical Education, and Recreation initiate the first contact. The admissions office has five recruiters with four representing the Hattiesburg Campus and one representing the Tradition Campus. These recruiters take trips to schools, churches, career days, university fairs, giving special attention to schools with high minority school bodies, and providing recruitment activities at minority churches. The recruiters make appoints with advisors in the School of Education when prospective students are visiting the campus or would like to visit the campus.

 

The School of Education is involved in recruiting university candidates from culturally diverse backgrounds. Prospective minority candidates are encouraged to consider the teaching profession. This now has been expanded to our Educational Leadership Principal’s Institute for the preparation of 21st century Instructional Leaders for our schools.

 

The School of Education is committed to the preparation of teacher educators who want to be involved in a rich, diverse global society. The 21st Century Schoolhouse is driven with the idea that all peoples are connected through technology, global aspirations, and national dreams in a broad international community. Teacher candidates must think beyond the local schoolhouse and prepare for global workplace.

 

The School of Education is committed through its field experiences to bring teacher candidates into a variety of diverse populations in order to bring support to those populations and to learn from them. The unit builds an environment that embraces diversity on campus and through the field experiences creating diverse teaching teams who enter schools to work as colleagues during practicum projects.

 

Undergraduate teacher candidates are rated with the INTASC standards during their student teaching internship experience.

 

Goal-Teacher candidates will provide quality learning experiences for diverse learners.

 

Indicator 1-The teacher understands how children learn and develop, and can provide learning opportunities that support a child’s intellectual, social, and personal development.

 

Indicator 2-The teacher understands how students differ in their approaches to learn and creates instructional opportunities that are adapted to diverse learners.

 

Indicator 3-The teacher uses an understanding of individual and group motivation and behavior to create a learning environment that encourages positive social interaction, active engagement in learning and self-motivation.

 

Indicator 4 – The teacher plans instruction based upon knowledge of subject matter, students, the community, and curriculum goals.

 

These indicators are assessed in the Supervising Teacher’s Evaluation II during Student Teaching Internship.

 

 

4a.2. What required coursework and experiences enable teacher candidates and candidates for other school professional roles to develop:

 

 awareness of the importance of diversity in teaching and learning; and

 the knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions to adapt instruction and/or services for diverse populations, including linguistically and culturally diverse students and students with exceptionalities?

 

Not applicable to the School of Education

 

 

4a.3. What key assessments provide evidence about candidates' proficiencies related to diversity? How are candidates performing on these assessments?

 

Candidate proficiencies in the area of diversity is evaluated by the Teacher Internship Assessment Instrument (2011). This instrument (TIAI) has been introduced to the School of Education during this past academic year. Under the major category: PLANNING AND PREPARATION, Items 3 and 6 evaluate candidate performance skills when working in diverse populations.

 

Item 3: Selects a variety of appropriate materials and technologies for lessons.

Item 6: Uses knowledge of students’ backgrounds, interests, experiences, and prior knowledge (e.g., pretests, learning styles, inventories, interest inventories, multiple intelligence surveys, and KWLs) to make instruction relevant and meaningful.

 

 

Table 4.1

Teacher Internship Assessment Instrument

Three point Likert Scale ( 3=Target; 2=Acceptable; 1=Emerging) Spring 2011

 

 

Performance Skill

Undergraduate Student Teacher

MAT Graduate

Intern

Item 3: Variety of Appropriate Materials and technologies for lessons

 

2.84

 

2.96

 

Item 6: Uses knowledge of students’ backgrounds, interests, experiences, and prior knowledge to make instruction relevant and meaningful.

 

2.48

 

2.66

*Initiated in 2010-2011

Although the 2.48 in Item 6 is at the level acceptable, the strong emphasis on differentiated instruction across the state requires that the faculty continue to increase training opportunities for teacher candidates working with diverse populations.

 

 

Table 4.2

Student Teaching Assessment Instrument

4 point Likert Scale (4=Outstanding, Effective Practice) Spring 2010

 

 

 

Performance Skill

Undergraduate Student Teacher

MAT Graduate

Intern

Item 28: Teacher demonstrates patience and empathy for rates of learning.

 

3.76

 

 

3.5

 

Item 29: Teacher shows sensitivity to learning styles of students.

 

3.87

 

 

3.72

 

 

When graduate students were surveyed using the Instructional Practices Questionnaire: Measures of Differentiated Instruction, the category INTERPERSONAL allowed graduate students to self-evaluate their use of Interpersonal Skills leading to differentiating instruction across a diverse population. See table.

 

 

Table 4.3

Instructional Practices: Measures of Differentiating Instruction (2011)

 

 

Students are given opportunities to:

Mean

  1. Refine relationships with their peers

3.5

  1. Refine relationships with peers from regular education.

3.3

  1. Develop leadership skills.

3.3

  1. Practice active listening skills.

3.6

  1. Practice decision-making within a group setting.

3.3

  1. Cooperate with group members.

3.4

  1. Experience risk-taking.

2.8

  1. Demonstrate empathy.

3.1

  1. Demonstrate communication skills.

3.6

  1. Practice group dynamics.

3.2

*4=Almost Always; 3=Often; 2=Sometimes; 1=Rarely;

 

 

 

4b. Experiences Working with Diverse Faculty

 

4b.1. What opportunities do candidates (including candidates at off-campus sites and/or in distance learning or alternate route programs) have to interact with higher education and/or school-based faculty from diverse groups?

 

The WCU International Partnership with Lin Yi University (China) has started a sharing program where professors are exchanged for a term. These professors are offering general courses that a wide range of students are finding useful in their programs. There is a rich diversity of clinical faculty and principals who work directly with the teacher candidates. This diversity across age, gender, and race provide for multiple experiences throughout the districts who are served by the university. Faculty from district schools are also invited on campus to work with undergraduate and graduate teacher candidates through the Super Summer Teaching Showcase and the MAT Alternate Route Best Practices seminars. P-16 councils have provided important information to our teacher candidates through the Teach for Excellence website http://teachforexcellence.com/. This site was initiated eighteen months ago to provide teaching materials from a diverse population of cooperating faculty members from nine districts.

 

 

 

As candidates interact with faculty and teachers and administrators in P-12 school settings, candidates have an opportunity to interact with a diverse body of educators. Faculty within the School of Education reflect a diverse population with regard to experiences and expertise. Racial diversity within the faculty of the university as a whole and the School of Education in particular remains an area of need. The School of Education has made a concerted effort to recruit and hire a more diverse faculty, both in regard to race and gender. However, challenges arise in finding credentialed faculty candidates who are interested in teaching in a small college as well as the challenges presented by the competition of a major state-funded university competing for the same faculty. The commitment to diversity is not diminished by these challenges. The unit continues to seek ways to ensure that all students are provided with experiences with a diverse faculty within the unit and with field experiences. A major commitment has been made to find credentialed minority adjunct faculty. Progress in this area has been made with the addition of four new African American adjunct faculty, three female and one male. Recruitment of these faculty for full time employment is active and on-going.

Racial diversity is not the sole concern of the unit. A concern for gender diversity within the elementary education program was identified as a concern. The addition of Dr. Barry Morris as an elementary specialist is 2004 enriched the elementary offerings. He teaches elementary pedagogy at both the undergraduate and graduate levels.

 

 

4b.2. What knowledge and experiences do faculty have related to preparing candidates to work with students from diverse groups?

In Mississippi, the School of Education is surrounded by Title One schools reflecting the diverse racial, cultural, and economic levels of the surrounding communities. The fifteen school districts include multicultural, Asian, Hispanics, Native Americans, Vietnamese, African Americans, and Caucasians. The faculty of the School of Education have been principals, teachers, curriculum directors, special education directors, Title One Coordinators, and superintendents across these same districts. This rich background and heritage brings a wealth of anecdotal information and research data to our teacher candidates.

 

There are assumptions made about diversity: changes from the university community, to the districts, and finally, to the individual schools. Diversity in schools is not always visible, but it is always present. In every classroom, even those that are fairly homogenous, diversity is present. From gender, ethnicity, and religion, social classes, and family backgrounds, all aspects of inclusion should be acknowledged and all are integral to student learning. Naming these inclusionary aspects “Funds of Knowledge,” educators know that children arrive at schools with vast Funds available. Extraordinary teachers encourage a rich heritage and a high valuing of the Funds of Knowledge.

Children’s Funds should be treasured and explored through learning experiences that bring the real world heritage of each family into the classroom. This type of learning and valuing would be diversity at its richest. Students are diverse in more ways than educators will probably ever know, but starting with the assumption of great diversity opens the classroom up to exciting and constantly changing possibilities. If the School of Education trains teacher candidates to follow the assigned curriculum page-by-page, then four assumptions can be made:

(1) The Funds of Knowledge waiting to be discovered in each classroom will be buried under the mandated worksheets and drills for that particular day;

(2) Teachers will behave as if all classrooms across the nation are exactly alike so that every fourth grader be on the same page on the same day, and this will be the end of differentiated instruction;

(3) Classrooms will no longer need qualified teachers and leaders, but rather trained technicians who can follow directions; and

(4) There will be little possibility within this scripted environment for the construction of new knowledge by students.

 

The School of Education has built a comprehensive framework for effective instruction where future teachers become experts in the art and science of teaching. According to James Banks, the primary goal of multicultural education is to transform the schools so that male and female students, exceptional students, and students from diverse cultural, social-class, racial, and ethnic groups experience an equal opportunity to learn and to share their backgrounds in a constructivist approach to building community.

 

 

 

 

 

4b.3. How diverse are the faculty members who work with education candidates?

 

Table 4.4

Faculty Demographics

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prof. Ed. Faculty Who Teach Only in Initial Teacher Preparation Programs

n (%)

 

Prof. Ed. Faculty Who Teach Only in Advanced Programs

n (%)

Prof. Ed. Faculty Who Teach in Both Initial Teacher

Preparation & Advanced

Programs

n (%)

 

All Faculty in the Institu-tion

n (%)

 

 

 

School- based faculty

n (%)

American Indian or Alaska Native

 

 

 

0

0

Asian

 

 

 

2

0

Black or African American, non-

Hispanic

 

 

2

12

2/8

Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific

Islander

 

 

 

0

0

Hispanic or Latino

 

 

 

0

0

White, non-Hispanic

4

8

12

161

24/92

Two or more races

 

 

 

0

0

Other

 

 

 

0

0

Race/ethnicity unknown

 

 

 

0

0

Total

 

 

 

175

26/100

Female

4

8

6

86

18/69.3

Male

2

3

3

89

8/30.7

Total

6

11

9

175

26/100

 

4b.4. What efforts does the unit make to recruit and retain a diverse faculty?

 

The unit has developed long term professional relationships through adjunct faculty and seeks to expand the ethnicity of full time faculty by utilizing these adjunct teachers. Our goal is to look at race, gender and age, because the unit’s faculty is made up of 85% of faculty who have already retired from their first vocation. Unfortunately faculty salaries are at the same level as fifth year teacher salaries (approximately $35,000 – nine month contract) making it extremely difficult to recruit young faculty members with appropriate credentials. We have faculty members just beginning their careers who are willing to take the low salaries but eventually move onto higher paying salaries. Over the past five years, we have added one African-American faculty member who was recently promoted chair of our largest department. In addition, a second African-American has promoted to chair of the Educational Leadership department. The unit continues to search for young professionals due to the health issues among our oldest faculty members. The recession has produced one advantage for Carey as a private institution. Our enrollment has grown instead of remaining stagnant and our budget is not regulated by state taxes and sharp budgetary cuts to state universities. This has produced a number of applicants who would not have thought of Carey as a career possibility.

 

 

4b.5. (Optional Upload for Online IR) Tables, figures, and a list of links to key exhibits related to faculty diversity may be attached here. [Because BOE members should be able to access many exhibits electronically, a limited number of attachments (0-3) should be uploaded.]

 

4c. Experiences Working with Diverse Candidates

 

4c.1. What opportunities do candidates (including candidates at off-campus sites and/or in distance learning or alternate route programs) have to interact with candidates from diverse groups?

 

William Carey University has long been committed to international partnerships around the world. Carey students travel to South America, Europe, Russia, China, and Indonesia where Carey students have opportunities to work on international projects with schools and communities. These are coordinated through the Baptist Student Union and allow university students to broaden with their experience and perspective. The Lin Yi project has been recently implemented as a faculty and student exchange program. The first cohort of graduate students from Lin Yi are projected to arrive during the 2011-2012 academic year.

 

 

 

4c.2. How diverse are the candidates in initial teacher preparation and advanced preparation programs? [Diversity characteristics in addition to those in Table 9 can also be presented and discussed, if data are available, in other prompts of this element.] Please complete Table 9 or upload your own table at Prompt 4c.4 below.

 

Table 4.5

Candidate Demographics (Fall 2010)

 

 

 

 

Candidates in Initial Teacher Preparation

Programs

n (%)

Candidates in Advanced Preparation Programs

n (%)

 

All Students in the Institution

n (%)

Diversity of Geographical Area Served by Institution

15 Counties

(%)

American Indian or Alaska Native

4

1

5/.0019%

0.06%

Asian

11

18

29/.011%

0.4%

Black or African American, non-

Hispanic

652

173

825/31.4%

32%

Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific

Islander

 

 

 

 

Hispanic or Latino

44

7

51/.019%

2.3%

White, non-Hispanic

1142

456

1598/60%

63.7%

Two or more races

13

3

16/.006%

1.2%

Other

 

 

 

 

International

104

2

106/.04%

 

Total

1970

660

2630

 

Female (Summer 2011)

275

661

936

 

Male (Summer 2011)

28

132

160

 

 

4c.3. What efforts does the unit make to recruit and retain candidates from diverse groups?

 

William Carey University has always been strongly proactive in recruitment of diverse populations. When comparing 2010 student demographics to 2011, there is an increase in diverse populations from 27% to 31%. The quality and reputation of the university programs has become more and more evident as seen by an increase in news articles. The university’s public relations department is very efficient providing regular news pieces to 84 media sites. The opening of the College of Medicine COM (Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine) has made a huge boost in the university’s public position in the state and region. With 1,000 applications for last fall’s opening COM school’s 110 positions, word went out that this is place to be noticed. There are over 1,100 applications for fall 2011 COM school. An amazing increase in numbers took place in Spring 2011 with a 700 student university enrollment increase from the previous year. The opening of the new campus, Tradition, was met with a flood of new students who have now filled that campus requiring plans for a new building which are now on the drawing boards. All of this has had an impact on the School of Education’s numbers. Our closest competitor has been forced to significantly raise tuition making our institutions more competitive.

 

4c.4. (Optional Upload for Online IR) Tables, figures, and a list of links to key exhibits related to candidate diversity may be attached here.

 

4d. Experiences Working with Diverse Students in P-12 Schools

 

4d.1. How does the unit ensure that candidates develop and practice knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions related to diversity during their field experiences and clinical practice?

 

Teacher candidates are involved in multiple field placements beginning with targeted field assignments. These assignments allow the students to select their school but the target placement requires that they work with specific populations and report back through reflections and anecdotal data about those populations (i.e. EDU 300 Introduction to Education; EDU 372 Survey of the Exceptional Child). Certain classes require the teacher candidates to travel with the professor to lab schools in the community:

1-Oak Grove Upper Elementary – EDR 308 Early Literacy I – Suburban;

2-Thames Elementary – EDR 311 Early Literacy II – Title One School – Inner City;

3-Oak Grove Primary – EDU 440 Kindergarten Practicum – Rural;

4-Earl Travillion Elementary School – EDU 413 Mathematics – Diagnosis and Remediation – Low socio-economic – Rural - Title One;

5-Boys and Girls Club – EDR 441 Reading Diagnosis and Remediation – Low socio-economic;

6-Aldersgate Housing Authority – ART 319 Art in the Elementary School – Housing Project – Low socio-economic.

 

The Secondary programs are recommending middle schools and high schools in the districts which best demonstrate quality instruction and a strong learning environment coupled with diverse populations both in suburban, rural, and urban settings.

 

 

Design, Implementation and Evaluation of Curriculum and Experiences

Teacher candidates entering the 21st century schoolhouse should be exceedingly knowledgeable about diverse students. They should have valuable experiences working with diverse students in order to adapt to the needs of different cultural groups. Clearly, teachers benefit from rich experiences that produce knowledge of individualism, ethnicity, and diversity (Rothstein-Fisch, Greenfield, & Trumbull, 1999). Diversity in the classroom, whether related to social class, ethnicity, gender or intellectual ability demands that educators take action by changing direction, plans, and strategies to meet the needs of their students (Fullan, Bennett & Bennett, 1990). Teacher candidates must become aware of research on cultural diversity in order to elicit the full potential of each student, and inversely, for teachers to embrace cultural diversity on a personal level. With some school districts being enticed to return to the days of ability grouping, the cultural and intellectual divide continues to grow between the “Haves” and the “Have-Nots”. There is a strong movement to separate the “have nots” from the learning community, scheduling them for the lowest levels of intellectual intervention, demanding a strong drill and memorization mode of instruction that does not allow room for creative thought or conscious construction of learning. In these sterile intellectual environments, students achieve only their lowest potential in an educational maintenance program that counts students like a custodian would inventory the furniture

 

The Inclusion Environment Across the nation, teachers are finding the inclusion movement has changed the face of traditional classrooms. The traditional teacher experience has been characterized by a sense of professional isolation where a teacher primarily works alone with a group of students passing them on to the next isolated teacher. The recent federal legislation has changed this traditional approach dramatically by introducing teacher teams into the classrooms. The last bastion of isolated teacher instruction is the university. At the present time, the School of Education has several teacher teams who enter into planning course experiences and developing technology. The School of Education at the present does not provide their students with models of Co-Teaching at the university level. The traditional university structure for financial reasons hampers the Unit’s ability to redesign courses in the co-teaching model. We have an obligation to bring that experience to our teacher candidates in the university classroom. Certain pieces of the STAI instrument have been used to view the effectiveness of candidates in including all students in their planning, teaching and assessment. Table 4.6 shows the results of STAI for the final evaluation for the student teachers in fall and spring.

 

 

 

 

Table 4.6 Summary of Student Teacher Scores

Student Teaching STAI Evaluation-Diversity and Inclusion

Scoring Guide

University Supervisor Evaluation

University Supervisor Evaluation

12 (rate of learning)

3.90

3.96

29 (learning styles)

3.90

3.97

33 (appropriate instruction)

3.90

3.97

36 (variety of methods)

3.93

3.98

43 (appropriate assessment)

No Data

3.70

44 (accommodates differences)

No Data

3.72

46 (uses multicultural perspectives)

No Data

3.80

4.00-Outstanding, Effective Practice; 3.00-Acceptable, Safe to Practice; 2.00-Marginally Acceptable Practice; 1.00-Ineffective, Unacceptable Practice

 

 

 

 

4d.2. How diverse are the P-12 students in the settings in which candidates participate in field experiences and clinical practice?

Table 10

Demographics on Sites for Clinical Practice in Initial and Advanced Programs

 

 

 

 

 

 

Name

of

District

 

Asian

N=

 

Black or African American, non-Hispanic

N=

 

Hispanic or Latino

N=

 

 

Native American

N=

 

 

White, non-Hispanic

N=

 

 

Students

receiving

free /

reduced

price

lunch

N=

 

 

Students

with

disabilities

N=

Bay St. Louis

27

362

35

2

1265

1329/74%

236

Biloxi

274

1781

332

9

2466

3323/66%

476

Covington

11

1698

42

0

1462

2444/75%

497

Forrest

14

994

71

3

1395

1842/76%

393

Gulfport

70

2990

232

10

2386

4083/72%

595

Hancock

48

234

99

17

4026

2589/58%

605

Harrison

432

3673

382

49

8828

9339/68%

1321

Hattiesburg

21

4104

110

1

230

4103/91%

556

Jeff Davis

2

1534

7

0

169

1640/100%

203

Jones

52

1668

290

70

6217

5616/67%

947

Lamar

125

1944

229

10

6308

4497/50%

1092

Laurel

7

2788

158

7

135

2704/90%

303

Long Beach

84

400

88

14

2192

1449/50%

314

Lumberton

6

323

2

0

418

630/92%

95

Marion

3

1113

13

4

1379

2096/89%

337

Moss Point

15

2138

36

1

733

2318/86%

341

Ocean Springs

200

652

197

17

4357

2023/38%

543

Pascagoula

105

3319

654

15

2922

5177/74%

892

Pass Christian

53

502

31

7

1036

1039/63%

172

Perry County

3

394

6

4

874

1000/79%

160

Petal

32

598

83

4

3237

2178/55%

544

Poplarville

9

320

22

9

1791

1503/71%

249

Richton

3

166

14

1

536

491/70%

84

Simpson

11

2203

48

0

1956

3442/82%

534

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4d.3. How does the unit ensure that candidates use feedback from peers and supervisors to reflect on their skills in working with students from diverse groups?

 

The School of Education’s mission is to create caring, reflective decision-makers. To that end every course has a component that requires students to reflect on the students they encounter and the impact of the interventions they design. But more deeply it is about educators becoming connected to their students, the students’ parents, and the communities. Beginning with EDU 300, Introduction to Education, students are required to build a reflection piece into their portfolios. Their philosophy of education is written based on the first experiences they have in elementary, middle, and high schools. This reflection piece continues throughout the program and is culminated with the reflections that are an integral part of the internship experiences. The partnership with supervising faculty and cooperating teachers (undergraduate internship) and mentor teachers/principals (MAT internship) builds a rich learning environment for these emerging professionals.